paper provides a review of recent developments in the rapidly changing and
advancing field of smart fabric sensor and electronic textile technologies. It
summarizes the basic principles and approaches employed when building fabric
sensors as well as the most commonly used materials and techniques used in
electronic textiles. The current work
demonstrates that fabric sensors can be tailored to measure force, pressure,
chemicals, humidity and temperature variations. Materials, connectors, fabric
circuits, interconnects, encapsulation and fabrication methods associated with
fabric technologies prove to be customizable and versatile but less robust than
their conventional electronics counterparts. The findings of this survey
suggest that a complete smart fabric system is possible through the integration
of the different types of textile based functional elements. This work intends
to be a starting point for standardization of smart fabric sensing techniques
and e-textile fabrication methods.
The vision behind wearable computing foresees future electronic systems to be
an integral part of our everyday outfits. Such electronic devices have to meet
special requirements concerning wearability. Wearable systems will be
characterized by their ability to automatically recognize the activity and the
behavioral status of their own user as well as of the situation around her/him,
and to use this information to adjust the systems’ configuration and
functionality. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of Smart
Textiles and pays particular attention to the materials and their manufacturing
process. Each technique shows advantages and disadvantages and our aim is to
highlight a possible trade-off between flexibility, ergonomics, low power
consumption, integration and eventually autonomy.
DEFINITION: Electronic textiles
(e-textiles) are fabrics that have electronics and interconnections woven into
them, with physical flexibility and size that cannot be achieved with existing
electronic manufacturing techniques. Components and interconnections are
intrinsic to the fabric and thus are less visible and not susceptible to
becoming tangled together or snagged by the surroundings. An e-textile can be
worn in everyday situations where currently available wearable computers would
hinder the user. E-textiles can also more easily adapt to changes in the
computational and sensing requirements of an application, a useful feature for
power management and context awareness.
textiles (e- textiles) are the textile fabrics with electronics and
interconnections woven in their structure. They possess the physical
flexibility and size not known in conventional electronics. Components and interconnections
are intrinsic to the fabric structure with reduced chance to be seen, tangled
together or snagged by the surroundings. Thinking for electronics that can be
draped over a vehicle or a tank is achievable using textile fabrics.
The use of fabric as station to
deploy electrical components results in wearable electrical/ computing devices.
The relative position of components including sensors, actuators, processing
elements can be altered.
The design process of an e- textile should appreciate the complexity, cost, and
effectiveness of system. This process must be based on a set of percept derived
from the experience and developing concepts. Software/ hardware architecture of
an e- textile using defined percept would facilitate the future research, and
produce applicable models. Computing elements, sensors, and actuators can be
seamlessly configured in known textile products such as shirts, hats,
parachutes, and blankets. Sophisticated fibre technology is introducing new
fibres that may function as batteries, durable wires, and speakers. The current
research and innovation in e- textiles is addressing the matters in computing
the infrastructure, and examining the applications.
Electronics and computer peripherals are now start coming in market and a
stream of electronic items is expected to emerge that are soft, compact,
flexible and portable. There are two areas where textiles and electronics are
taking the directions. First the smart textile interface fabrics are adding
value in electronics. In the other area, electronics are enhancing the
functional textiles; for example the sensor and communication technology are
used in protective wear, out door sports, children wear, and medical
Elector technology can be used by
the product designers to produce control for electronic devices that are soft,
light weight, flexible, washable, and wearable. Its applications range from
wearable electronic control for consumer electronics and industrial wear to
light- weight, low- power touch interfaces for telemetric, military,
transportation, and space suits. It may replace the hard touch pads, flexi-
circuits, and polymer switches which do not find wider uses in growing demand
of wearable electronics.
The sensor woven/ embedded in the sleeves of jackets or straps of rucksacks
provides easy- to- wear control for mobile phones, headphones, or microphones.
Elek Tex may also provide electronic accessories including in- built speaker or
Performance of material creates application, and application brings the
business. This seems happening when Microsoft Corporation selected Eleksen, UK
based manufacturer of smart fabric interfaces, to design and manufacture the
peripherals for the Ultra- Mobile PCs.
The business interest in the innovative ‘smart fabric’ developed by Eleksen for
electronic devices has been realised, and private equity investors have made an
investment of 4 million. The fund will be used to support expansion and working
capital to meet the desired sales growth. The range of applications for the
innovative Eleksen technology is significant and the funding would hopefully
make a difference in its market.
The diversity in the application of electronic textiles (e- textiles) is
increasing and becoming interesting. The textile clothes, being light- weight,
strong and bendable, can be stretched over any frame into desired shape.
Electronic wires and sensors woven into fabric can perform the function of
listening faint sound. That means people resting in tents or camouflage net may
hear the distant sounds of vehicles or steeping/ movement of people, animals,
enemies etc. Thinking for a jacket or hat that can alert the wearer when
someone (friend or enemy!) is coming from the back; or having night wears that
wakes you up when fire approaching wouldn’t be impossible using e- textiles.
The sensors and associated connecting wires generate pattern of information
that can be translated by computer software into images which enable the user
to determine the location of detected sounds. There are e- textiles systems
that do not produce detectable energy and require less power then radio- wave-
Sound detection is only one application of e- textile system, fabric may be
woven with sensors that can detect chemicals, materials, and satellite signals
etc. The interest and investment in research and innovation are introducing
more types of such smart- applications.
The increasing exploration in the performance of smart textiles will continue
to grow, and the interdisciplinary applications will be gaining more interest
for innovation and development. Optimistically the future is bright for e- textiles.
wear: calculating heart beat and blood pressure.
The product here by Quell Relief is one of the new healthcare wearable’s
and smart technology who really take functionality to the utmost. Not only is
this knee brace type device engineered to give you the stability that you
expect out of a brace but it is also embedded with the market required sensors
that allow for smart keeping of information that can be accessed through a
companion app. This product likes to pride itself on being able to give the
person the optimal relief when it comes to a knee brace.
SMART STOP BY
CHRONO THERAPEUTICS :
Smart Stop by Chrono
Therapeutics is a smart device that is aimed at helping people to stop smoking.
The Smart Stop is embedded with sensors that will sense changes in the body and
put into motion algorithms that sense that a person is craving for a cigarette
The Smart Stop has a companion app that gives person information about
quitting and coaching them in being able to stop their harmful habit. This
wearable device will certainly be another one of those game changers in the
SMART CONTACT LENSES:
Google has been able to see
itself in just about every other part of technology these days so why not the
smart wearables for healthcare market. Google has been able to have smart
contact lenses that are made for people who suffer from diabetes and those who
simply wear glasses. Google has partnered with the Swiss based pharmaceutical
company in Novartis here.
The technology is engineered to take the
tears in a person’s eye and measure the glucose levels that are present. For
people who wear glasses, the lens would be engineered to what the companies say
is ‘to restore the eye’s natural autofocus’. This product has been around and
getting the ending fine tunes in development over the past couple of months so
2015 could see this product becoming more widely used and more aware to
consumers and the public.
CONCLUSION: Textiles represent an
attractive class of substrates for realizing wearable bio-sensors. Electronic
textiles, or smart textiles, describe the convergence of electronics and
textiles into fabrics which are able to sense, compute, communicate and
The vision of wearable computing
describes future electronic systems as an integral part of our everyday
clothing serving as intelligent personal assistants. Therefore, such wearable
sensors must maintain their sensing capabilities under the demands of normal
wear, which can impose severe mechanical deformation of the underlying