The While vehicle B can communicate directly with both

The position computation of MHLVP as described in (Abumansoor & Azzedine, 2012) was based on triangulation calculations, from Fig. 3.23, vehicle A wants to verify vehicle C’s location; but, direct communication is not possible due to the existence of an obstacle. While vehicle B can communicate directly with both A and C, each vehicle know its GPS position (x, y) in a two-dimensional plane, the algorithm is given below:

·        Location and mobility information are monitored to detect inconsistencies, such as unpredicted changes in a vehicle location, mismatches in received information or expired records.

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·         When an inconsistency is detected, vehicle A is triggered to verify a questioned neighbour (Vehicle C) from its list.

·        Vehicle A will  check to determine whether it has a direct communication to C, If it  does not have a direct communication  to  C, it will mark C in its table as a vehicle to be verified and forwards the request message to B and adds a flag that the vehicle has an NLOS

·        Before forwarding the message, vehicle A listens to its neighbours and checks to determine whether any of them has forwarded the same message.

·         If it has been forwarded, the vehicle will ignore the forwarding process and wait for a reply.

·         If it was not forwarded and a maximum number of hops were not reached, it will forward the message.

·        Vehicle A will send a verification request Req to its direct neighbours (vehicle B) to verify location C with its announced position  and mobility vector.

·        The forwarded message contains the original request, and information about a sender. If a reply is not received after a certain time, the message will be discarded, and the record for C will be deleted.

·        If a vehicle B receives the request, it will first verify the sender by checking its existence in its neighbourhood list

·        B can verify C’s location by determining its distance using radio measurements, such as Radio Receive Signal Indicator (RSSI), and compare with the announced position and measured values.

·        If both values match, B will send a response back to A containing the distance dbc  and verifying the location of C. Once received, A verifies dab and calculates the angle ? between.