The importance of advertising during the election
campaign was so important and relevant that without it, would not be the same
history. As an example, what would have happened if Obama only had 75% of the
resources he had for advertising? According to Gorenz, Franz and Ridout (2010) the results were being different, for instance in
North California and Florida, Barack Obama would have lost and in Indiana, where
he had a razor-thin win of 28,000 votes out of 2.8 million, would be reduced by
more than 22,000 votes. In contrast, Obama lost Missouri by only 4,000 votes,
that means that if he could invested more in advertising maybe we could have
added this state into his column (Goren
et al., 2010).
Mass media also had an effect during the U.S.
presidential election. Although the consumption of public television has
decreased from 55.1% of households in the U.S. in 1999 to 32% in 2013, the
number of viewers of Obama’s presidential inauguration of 2008 reached 37.93
million, only overpass by Ronald Regan in 1981 with a total of 41.8 million of
In terms of fundraising the Obama ’08 campaign broke
all the records. In words of Michael Luo (Michael Luo, 2008) Barack Obama bought in nearly $750 million for his
presidential campaign, a record amount that exceeds what all of the candidates
combined collected in private donations in the previous race for the White
House. So how did they raise all this money? One key factor was the e-mails.
These personalized and persistent e-mails were signed by a variety of Obama’s
campaign members, such as David Plouffe, Valerie Jarret, John Podesta, Michelle
Obama and of course the candidate himself. (Cogburn -Vasquez, 2011). The marketing also took place here, for instance if
you contributed with $50, you will receive a distinctive Obama’s item, such as
a jacket (Cogburn & Espinoza-Vasquez, 2011). As we can see in Figure 3, the total amount raised
in the presidential election held in 2008 reached about 1.75 billion U.S.
dollars. This amount duplicates the quantity raised in 2004 and triplicates the
quantity raised in 2000. It is important to mention that the majority of the
contributions were made by individual contributors (88%) (Opensecrets, 2013) and $500 U.S. million dollars were raised digitally (Michael Scherer, 2012).