Pearl human and animal activitiesCaused by trains, machines, airplanes,

Pearl River Delta:Introduction:Megaregions are also known as megalopolis, they are a network of cities sharing their services, resources and knowledges together.  Megaregions often form in countries with strong economics.  There are 21 megaregions right now but it is likely that by 2050 there would be 30 more.  Megacities are a very large city combined of small cities with the population of more than 10 million.One of the largest megaregions in the world, is the Pearl River Delta in China. This megaregion is located in the area where Pearl River flows into the South China Sea.  This megaregion consists of 9 major cities and is home to 120 million people.  ShenzhenGuangzhouFoshanDongguanZhaoqingJiangmenZhongshanZhuhaiHuizhouHong Kong MacauV:  What environmental challenges does a large city pose?  PollutionMost polluted area in china in 2013 Air pollution is caused various gases and toxin released by industries and factories and use of fossil fuelsHigh density cities sometimes produce less pollution per person than rural and lower density areas because people in these places drive more or use other kinds of transportation that creates pollution to get to a place. The reason why is because the distance that they should travel is more and people in larger cities because of being close to what they need, they could walk.Chemical pollutionChemical pollution is when chemicals are released in our environment and affects our ecosystem, our health and pollute our air and foodNoise pollutionHarmful or annoying noise that has a bad impact on human and animal activitiesCaused by trains, machines, airplanes, engines, etc.Large cities have a lot of noise pollutionLight pollutionphotopollutionLarge cities produce a lot of light that makes light pollution Light pollution is brightening the night sky with man made lightAffecting animals and changing their behavior One billion birds die every year because of light pollutionWater and soil pollutionRequire million years to recubeHeavy metal, nitrate and plastics are toxin responsible for pollutionWater pollution is caused oil spill acid rain urban Soil pollution industrial waste Untreated sewage is a major reason for water pollutionIt could harm the ecosystem DeforestationForests produce fresh oxygen by taking carbon dioxideRegulating temperature in rainfallForests near cities are being cut down for housing Loss of Arable land and agricultureWith population increase more farming is needed. Over farming leads into to nutrient loss.Half of earth’s topsoil has been lost in past 150 years.Soil degradation leads to dissertation that leads to people migratingUrbanization affects the amount of arable land; building different structures and using land for industries will make the land no longer available for farming and it will be as fertile as it was before.Loss of habitatWith cities and different structures being built, places for animals and  plant to live is lessUrban sprawl could destroy places for animals and plants like forests, wetlands and grasslands and with habitat being destroyed animals are forced to migrate and move.Animals and plant that can not accept the situation will be distinct or they would be reduced in numbersThe extinction of species would affect biodiversity   Climate change and global warmingCaused by greenhouse gasesLeads to rising temperature of oceans and earth surface causes melting of ice mountain that leads to rising sea level and unnatural precipitation such as flash flash floods and too much snow.  Overpopulation Shortage of resources like food, water and fuelShortage of natural resourcesFossil fuel depletion Waste disposalIt is a ergent  current environmental problems Nuclear waste disposal , plastic disposal , electronic waste  Change of ecosystem Many species are in danger because of humansOzone layer depletionIt is a invisible layer that protects earth from sun’s harmful rays When toxic gases( CFCs and halons) reach to the Ozone layer they create a hole in this layer that would lead to slight traces of lifeL:  When there is competition for land, what can stakeholders do to try to ensure their voices are heard? Are some stakeholders more likely than others to be heard? Why might that be the case?The stakeholder will do things likeUse more money -money speaks lower than wordsTry to persuade the owner -make them lean more towards your side Examples :Purchasing a home L:  What impact will continued urbanization have in this area? E:  How will it affect people’s access to employment, housing, and resources? V:  What are the social, environmental, and economic effects of loss of agricultural land? Of the loss of forests?Inadequate Food When the urbanization happened following the economical growth in the PRD ,the agriculture land turned to industrial and construction zone. Therefore the the fertile land for food production decrease the big issue now is how to feed the largest population in the world when urbanization take over the agricultural land.New farmland reclamation from forest the spreading of urban areas on farmlands causes new farmland reclamation and accelerated deforestationLoss of forest Because of urban expansion 22.58% of PRD’s forests is lost. forest loss have adverse effects on a variety of environmental factors, such as deterioration of wildlife habitat and threatening biodiversity and it  is also  associated with changes in local and regional climate, environments, and natural resources EconomyActually economy development affect the farmland and turned it to urban area and construction zone and better economy made worse agricultural business Change in agriculture typeBefore economical development it was mainly an agricultural area, engaging in paddy and fruit production, but following the economical development some cropland had been changed to orchards because of better economic value of fruit trees compared to that of paddy. Therefor new farmland doesn’t ensure food production because of a market wise production.E:  What impact does loss of habitat have on wildlife? Urbanization is taking place in many areas for example, the Pearl River Delta is a megaregion with buildings and infrastructures built on many lands including forests.  The lands of the forests are flattened in order to create space for the expansion of agricultural lands and for the constructions to take place.  The trees of the forests, where habitats of different wildlifes are located, are cut down because of the need for timber, wood for building and other forest products.  Humans are constructing buildings, roads and industries which continue to destroy habitats that are found in swamps, lakes and plains.  There are 3 types of habitat destruction:DestructionFragmentationDegradationThe first type is destruction, this is when the habitat is completely changed to the point that it no longer exists.  Due to the fact that the habitat no longer exists, it may lead to the extinction of that particular specie.  The second type is fragmentation.  The habitat is broken up into fragments for example, a road could cut the area of the location of the habitat in half.  The fragment might be too small to maintain the growth of a population of a wildlife, restricting an animal to breed freely with others.  The third type is degradation which is when the habitat is changing over time and becomes less suitable for the present specie to live in.  Due to the changing habitat, a more aggressive animal might move in and eventually take over the habitat.  Urbanization, deforestation and dredging rivers are some examples of degradation.  L:  What are the costs of the encroachment of human settlement on agricultural or wilderness areas? L: Why should we care about endangered species We should care about endangered species because they are  apart of the food chain and if It goes extinct it will be bad L:    What are some of the pros and cons of your selected megaregion with specific examples?Some pros and cons E: How could you apply the one hour living circle to your region with specific examples? (Transportation)A one hour living circle is to be able to travel to different areas in the circle in under an hour.  In order to travel from Macau or Zhuhai to Hong Kong, you either have to take a boat or drive 200 km which is a 4 and a half hours trip across the southeastern China.  In 2009, China began working on a 55km long project called the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge to reduce the travelling times between Zhuhai, Hong Kong and Macau.  It took 7 years to construct Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge and was completed in December 2016.  It is situated at the waters of Lingdingyang of Pearl River Estuary.  The main structure of the project is 29.6km with a 22.9km bridge and a 6.7km underwater tunnel.  The total length of the bridge which is 55km is measured from an artificial island near Hong Kong International Airport, across the bridge and to another artificial island in the eastern shore of Macau.  The reasons of constructing this bridge are to reduce the travelling time, to make it more convenient for residents to transport to further different areas and to build a transportation route to connect the east and west banks of Pearl River Delta.  It is also constructed to enhance the economic and sustainable growth between the Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai.  With this bridge, the estimated travel time will be shortened from 4 hours to 40 minutes driving time.  Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge is currently one of the world’s longest bridge over water.  It will add a new transportation route in Pearl River Delta, the largest urban area in the world.  E:  What are some of the driving factors that have led to this region becoming a “megaregion”?Pearl River Delta is currently one of the largest megaregions in the world.  In 1979, Pearl River Delta experienced a rapid urbanization expansion transforming from originally a mostly agricultural land to one of the biggest megaregion in the world.  China decided to combine the cluster of 9 major cities in 1979 to carry out the urbanization of Pearl River Delta.  The fastest growth happened between 2000 to 2010 growing from 4500 square km to 7000 square km.  Pearl River Delta is the leading megaregion of China’s reform which drives the prosperity of this region in the last 30 years.  The driving factor leading this region to become a megaregion is because it is an experimental region for China to investigate the scientific development for the country.  The scientific developments discovered are:  Lead to deeper cooperation among cities in the region.  Better use of human resources.  Technologies exchange and enhancement occurred. Increase both internal and external product trading. Boost the demand of professional services such as accountants, attorneys, management consultants and healthcare specialist. Increase economic activities.  Establishment of a sound financial system to facilitate flow of moneyThe reasons that China decided to develop Pearl River Delta include enabling residents to travel around freely so that they can access the public services and facilities in different areas of the region and also spread industries and jobs evenly across the megaregion.  E:  What land use conflicts do you see arising from the development of megaregions?Land use conflicts are the interaction between groups of people with different interest in how a piece of land is used.  For example, whether a piece of land is used to build a hospital or a shopping centre in a busy area.  Some businessmen will want to make profit from property development, to build a shopping centre, they can rent out the space and earn income.  While the government runs a hospital meaning that it does not earn income.  There are many people living and working in that area and there is always a need to meet these people’s demand of medical services.  Choosing between building a hospital or a shopping centre in the middle of a busy area is an example of a conflict of land use.  L: Do you think that megaregions are sustainable?  Why or why not?The planners that are involved in the planning process need to make decisions that they think will be best for an area of this magnitude.  V:  What do you think the biggest considerations for these people are?Land use For reducing the loss of wetlands they should create more dense area in existing citiesDensificationThey should built high rise buildings and more variety in housing types which multigeneration live in to stay connected and not use the car in different places to avoid more  traffic Mobility( traffic )They have to expand the regional rail and subway lines and better public transit so the road traffic decreasePoor water quality About 35% of PRD have the lowest possible rating for water qualityPut the human health in danger Habitat lossThe water pollution put marine lives at risk and they should consider watershed management plans  Diminishing food sourcesThe poor water quality influence fish population and the water plants which are very necessary for people’s foodV:  Research to find viable ways to increase the carrying capacity of a city?Carrying capacity is the ability for a region to sustain a maximum population based on its resources,without depletion. Building more structures in a small amount of space (high rise buildings)Farming and animal husbandry in a smaller space (vertical framing and animal husbandry) Using clean energyIncrease in nutrient sourcesProviding clean water and air Controlling diseases and increase in medical care Making uninhabitable places like desert inhabitable Places with good government and peaceful environment, no war, no terrorism, no rebels Good economy and good job opportunity