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Page 1Sally Abdelbagi HamadelneelAl Neelain UniversityGraduate CollegeFaculty of MedicineDepartment of Community MedicinePost- Graduate Board for Medical Studies-Semester (2)-2017Occupational and Environmental Health Module(2316 words)By:Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel ElmobarakSupervisor name :Dr. Sara Lavinia Brair Associate Professor, Community Medicine and Public HealthPage 2Sally Abdelbagi HamadelneelIntroduction :According to the WHO OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations – total health of all at work”Occupational hazard is ” Source or situation with a potential for harm in terms of injury or ill health, damage to property, damage to the workplace environment, or a combination of these.”Accident”: any occupational injury or disease which afflicts the worker during working hours or because of work and which hinders his performance. The term also includes fire, explosion or collapse at the workplace. (1)I n 2001, the International Labour Organization (ILO) published ILO-OSH 2001, also titled “Guidelines a on occupational safety and health management systems” to assist organizations with introducing OSH management systems.59 These guidelines encourage continual improvement in employee health and safety, achieved via a constant process of policy, organization, planning & implementation, evaluation, and action for improvement, all supported by constant auditing to determine the success of OSH actions.The Decent Work (DW) Agenda is a commitment to promote a more just and sustainable framework for development. Achieving decent work for all women and men requires the fulfillment of four strategic and mutually reinforcing objectives .(2)There are many agents that can be occupational hazard which can cause disease for the workers at the place which they are work in it has been categories In to:A. Physical1- Temperature – i.e.: Heat/Cold2-Noise3-Vibration4-Radiation can cause Cancer, Leukemia, Aplastic Anemia, PancytopeniaPage 3Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel5-Light which can cause occupational CataractNoise – Occupational deafness When the noise intensity exceeds 85 dB for eight hours and for six days per week.B. Chemical : Lead and zinc casting (scrap) – Lead smelting – Porcelain briquettes – Polishing by lead – Lead use in newspaper printing – Preparation and use of paints or paints containing lead – Exposure to dust, vapors, compounds or materials containing lead.Routes of entry – Inhalation, Ingestion, skin absorption. (Inhalation is the main route of entry .All these can lead to job stress, which leads by long time to decrease the health of the workers and even decrease in the quality of the work so that the government must implement the lows for safety of the workers and because this worker write.Objectives :To discuss the role of ministry of health and labor office in Sudan focusing in topic:1/Safety and health at work .2/ addressing whether the ministry of health and the labor office can or cannot influence to make a difference in the current situation.Finding :Governments are responsible for drawing up occupational safety and health policies and making sure that they are implemented. Policies will be reflected in legislation, and legislation must be enforced. But legislation cannot cover all workplace risks, and it may also be advisable to address occupational safety and health issues by means of collective agreements reached between the social partners. Policies are more likely to be supported and implemented if employers and workers, through their respective organizations, have had ahand in drawing them up. This is regardless of whether they are in the form oflaws, regulations, codes or collective agreements (2)Sudan has no clear, comprehensive and articulated policy statement. Rather, there is a number of separate laws. (3)Page 4Sally Abdelbagi HamadelneelThere is a frame work in Sudan but the implementation of roles is very poor, these are the roles :A-The Federal Minister of Labour is the competent national authority on safety and health at work.1) The Minister shall issue an Order to establish a committee under the name of “the Federal Manpower Committee”Consisting of a president and a number of competent members representing the relevant administrations of the State, i.e. employers and workers.(2) The Committee established under sub-paragraph (1) may establish branch committees in the districts.(3) The Federal Committee and its branch Committees at the districts shall be supervised by the Minister.1) The Committee shall:(a) Coordinate, in accordance with the adopted general policy, the activities of the executive bodies in charge of workers.(b) Calculate and count, on a regular basis, the number of workers and submit to the Minister all the information and recommendations which it deems necessary for submission to the Council of Ministers.(c) Supervise the implementation of the adopted labour programmes in a manner which is adapted to the plans for development.(d) Perform any other activities related to labour which the Minister may assign it to perform within the framework of the General Policy adopted by the Council of Ministers.(2) The Committee may empower any of its authorities to the branch Committees in the districts (4)Page 5Sally Abdelbagi HamadelneelFrom my point of view this committee is very poor because the coordination is limited the policy incomplete and very week supervision, this committee should have power and resource to it is job .B-Every owner of an industry shall inform his workers of the occupational hazards and means for protection against such hazards. He shall take the necessary precautions to protect workers against industrial accidents and occupational.(4)By looking to this role we can see Cleary the weakness of supervision of the committee because in Sudan the owners do not inform the workers by the hazard.Also one the bountiful guidelines of framework of Sudan but unfortunately not implemented:”It is prohibited to employ young workers (below the age of 16) in the following jobs:1. (a) carrying heavy loads.(b) work involving the use of metal presses.(c) work related to iron and steel smelting.(d) work performed under ground or under water, and mining and quarrying work.(e) work involving the use of lead or lead compounds.(f) jobs in which workers are exposed to organic or inorganic poisonous or harmful material such as lead, mercury, calcium, benzene and its derivatives.(g) jobs involving x-rays and other harmful radiation.(h) jobs involving the maintenance of machinery and conveyer belts.2. In hazardous or unhealthy industries and jobs or in jobs requiring large physical effort or in jobs or occupations which are harmful to their morals.3. Between 8.p.m. and 6.a.m. The competent authority may, however, exclude any category of young persons from this provision in cases of young persons between the age of 15 and 16 years.Page 6Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel4. It shall be forbidden to employ young persons under the age of 12 years, except in: (a) the State’s training schools.(b) non-profitable training workshops.(c) jobs supervised by his family members in establishments which do not employ other persons.(e) jobs performed under apprenticeship contracts.””The normal hours of work for young persons shall be seven hours a day broken by a period of rest of one paid hour. It shall be forbidden to make a young person work for more than four consecutive hours.” (4)But it is very clear that the children are work with these wrong situation.One of the implemented roles are :Protection of pregnancy at work”A female worker shall, after six months of service and for each further year of service, be entitled to maternity leavewith full pay to be calculated as follows:(a) Four weeks before her confinement and four weeks after her confinement, provided that the date of confinement is certified by a doctor.(b) two weeks before her confinement and six weeks after her confinement if she wishes so;(c) if the female worker absents herself from work after the termination of the period provided for under paragraphs.(a) and (b) above because of a disease resulting from the pregnancy or the confinement which prevents her from resuming her work, as certified by a doctor, she shall be considered to be on sick leave.Page 7Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel(2) Without any prejudice to the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of section 50 of this Act, it shall be forbidden to rescind the contract of employment of a female worker during her pregnancy or confinement period diseases . (4)So that there is guidelines for the occupational health in Sudan but the implementation is very poor, the guidelines of occupational health come from consistency between the ILO guidelines, the nationalguidelines and the tailored guidelines, with sufficient flexibility to permit direct application or tailored application at the organization levelAt national level, the guidelines should:(1) Be used to establish a national framework for OSH management systems, preferablySupported by national laws and regulations.(2) Provide guidance for the development of voluntary arrangements to strengthenCompliance with regulations and standards leading to continual improvement inOSH performance.(3) Provide guidance on the development of both national and tailored guidelines onOSH management systems to respond appropriately to the real needs of organizations,according to their size and the nature of their activities.At the level of the organization, the guidelines are intended to:(1) Provide guidance regarding the integration of OSH management system elementsin the organization as a component of policy and management arrangements .(2) To motivate all members of the organization, particularly employers, owners, managerialstaff, workers and their representatives, in applying appropriate OSH .These giudlines is very important because it is provide :Page 8Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel1. The development and enforcement of labour coaes designed to protect the health and safety ofworkers.2. The preparation of factory legislation.3. The control of the working environment including air quality, humidity, air movement, light, noise levels, the provision of safety devices, personal protective equipment and sanitary facilities.4. The determination of which work is suitable for females and young employeesand of the age requirements for workers.5. The placement of workers in relation to physical capacity through a system of pre-placement andPeriodic physical examination.6. The development of social insurance schemes.7. The training of all types of personnel necessary for the implementation of theprogramme. (5)Why there is week implementation for the guidelines ?1- Even though accurate data in many countries are lacking, it is evident that the existing legislation and the workers unions have been effective to at least some extent in securing compensation for workers in case of accidents. (1)2- There is no establish for the occupational safety and health policies Such policies must be implemented at both the national (governmental) and enterprise levels.They must be effectively communicated to all parties concerned.3- Macroeconomic situation of Sudan: Sudan one of the countries that have low income so that personal protective equipment is deficient, and when it is available ,it is either of poor quality or improperly used (5)Page 9Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneel4- Low of wariness of the workers : some workers are not aware why this safety devices and protective equipment as required and why it is important to use it at the place of work and how to use for local conditions .5- lack of training for workers : Training in occupational health is provided in all medical and nursing schools wherever they exist but it enjoys a very low priority, as does the safety training provided in engineering school .6- shortage of professional and technical staff especially of the middle and lower levels; (1)7- Basic problems include: deficient legislation;8- weak supervision for the place of work : there is very week supervision from the labor office for the equipment, place of food and sanitation to ensure that everything as ILO guidelines9- Machines and equipment are installed without attention to safety rules, and there is a notable lack of machine guarding. Safety committees when prcsen~, lack technical support and supervision.10- workers not know the low11- although there is support from(Decent work and social justice/ International Labour Organization (ILO)) DW/ILO to( Ministry of Labour and Human ResourcesDevelopment, Ministry of Social Welfare, Ministryof Agriculture, Ministry of Youth, Ministry of Social Welfare; State authorities in Kassala andGadarif, South and North Kordofan, Blue Nile,Khartoum Workers and employers organizationsincluding at state level (North and South Kurdofan,Blue Nile), Sudanese Business and Employers Association) there is very poor implementation (2)12- Low levels of coordination resulting in fragmentation and duplication of effort, as evidenced by the creation of two teacher training institutes (and a third one in the planning stage)(3)13- weak political commitment because there is no coordination because the policy is not comprehensive and fragmented .If all these problems solve probably ministry of health and the labor office can influence to make a difference in the current situation .Page 10Sally Abdelbagi Hamadelneelconclusion :The role of ministry of health and labor office can improve by :1- To institute a programme of environmental impact assessment of all development programmes including industry, construction, agricultural and water resources development projects.2- To investigate and control all sources of pollution of air, water, soil, food and of the work environment.3- To evaluate the effects on health of exposure to a variety of pollutants, sug-gest health measures and assesses the effectiveness of these measures.4- To develop a system of early identification of health problems associated with pollution in the general environment and at work organization of such a programme in many countries of the region would encounter number of difficulties due to shortage of trained personnel, materiel and money.5- It is important to realize, some sort of organized progrnmme is better than Nothing .6- Health manpower As the objective of occupational health is to provide comprehensive and total health care to the working population, the programme has to draw upon the total health manpower available .(1)7- Enforcing authorities to ensure that the basic legal requirements relating to occupational health and safety are mePage 11