1. Training is
commonly identified as giving opportunities to people to improve their skills,
modifying behavior, and increasing competence. Mostly, requirement of the
training is giving complete attentions on students should competent what they
should know as per that particular subjects. Training is a longer-term process,
which includes the goals of training and describes why certain facts must be known.
Training is scientific process and it should be systematically designed and
organization must have correct system to get their maximum output when they
discharge their duties (USA. Department Health and Human Services, 1999).
2. Sri Lanka is a country which had brutal 30 years war since
80’s and terminated on 19th May 2009 by the Sri Lankan armed forces.
It is observed that various HR and IHL (Human
Rights and International Humanitarian Law) allegations were raised from several
parties in the world, including the UNHRC (United Nation Human Rights Council).Assessing
the improvement of the implementing HR resolution 30/1 on promoting reconciliation,
accountability is still being observed by the UNHRC (releifweb,2017). SLN (Sri Lanka Navy) is
being armed force, effectiveness on HR and IHL training is essential to enhance
the professional knowledge on naval personnel.
Establishing and protecting HR and IHL is utmost important and that
responsibility lies with the armed forces as well as the Ministry of defence in
any countries (Bienert, 2014). Several HR and IHL training are being conducted
by the SLN for the officers as well as the sailors regularly.
3. Professionalism of naval personal can
be categorized under many aspects. It will be varied from initially as officers
and sailors in SLN, and then it will be depended on the particular branch,
personal they belong. Apart from that, the significance of the HR and IHL is
the great important for all naval personal as the service men. Naval personal
are being engaging with many civilian cases. So it is obvious that,
professionalism of service person is also included the knowledge on HR and IHL
is great important. Therefore study on effectiveness of HR and IHL training in
SLN is paramount important for enhance professionalism of naval personnel.
SIGNIFICANCE/JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
training on HR and IHL is great important to prevent HR and IHL violation by
the SLN in conflict scenario in both land and sea. Specially, there should be a
mechanism to evaluate the knowledge on HR of naval personal who are engaging
with civilian (fishermen, drug dealers, illegal migrants and etc.)
5. Even though
government forces have totally defeated the terrorist in Sri Lanka, but thorough
knowledge on IHL is required to handle future conflicts as military personal.
6. Study was not
carried out to find effectiveness of HR and IHL training in SLN.
7. Effective training should be included
that knowledge, techniques and skills and it will be affected to minimize the mistakes
which can be taken place in real scenario (Raja and Kumar, 2016).
8. Continues Training
on HR and IHL helps to upgrade knowledge of SLN personal and inculcating the
sense of co-ordination with the civilians.
9. SLN personnel
are being under gone several HR and IHL training throughout their naval
carrier. Those training are categorized as Post graduate, Diploma, Advanced
courses, Refresher courses, Instructor courses and etc. All above training
programmes are conducted in institutions and universities, which are not, belongs
to the SLN. SLN officers are being frequently participated for HR and IHL
conferences mostly abroad and many local seminars. Separate Directorate is
functioned in SLN as HR and IHL and different training module are being conducted
for the naval personal. In addition that many important training modules in SLN
are not included HR and IHL training, though it is important for the naval personal.
Also, it is observed that utilization of naval personal those who have
completed HR and IHL training are not involved with particular subject. Only 03
Legal branch officers are involved in HR and IHL directorate and it is observed
that there are no any single officer who
have possessed with many training in particular subjects. In addition that sailor’s
knowledge on HR and IHL need to be improved a due many cases reporting about HR
violation against the naval personal in post war scenario.
Following will be considered as
constraint – Some sailors may not give correct feedback.
Time constraint –
Time will be a constrain with the academic works at DSCSC.
constraint – As per the statistics of HR and IHL directorate, so it was very
difficult to cover all the naval personal in this survey. Number of naval
personal covered in this survey is limited to the sample sizes who are working
in Western Naval Area. This limits the
scope of the project study and the analysis may not represent the whole
constraint – The time duration for the research is limited to around 10 months
.so it was difficult to analyze the trainings effectiveness at micro level.
Officers of HR and IHL directorate may reluctant
to give exact details.
Study will be carried out within SLN and not
involved the other institutes and universities conducting the HR and IHL
programmes for naval personal.
this research the Kirkpatrick Model will be used to measure the effectiveness
of HR and IHL training in SLN. The Kirkpatrick Model is world recognized module
for use to measure the effectiveness of training (Saad et al., 2013). The
conceptual frame work for the study is as follows.
of Training (Dependent variable)
Figure 1: conceptual Framework
12. Hypotheses. There
is no effectiveness of the HR and IHL training in SLN.
13. Null hypotheses. There is an effective of the HR and IHL
training in SLN.
RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
14. The aim
of this research is to carryout in-depth study to investigate, how effectiveness
of HR and IHL training in SLN.
15. Following are the objectives of research.
To study the effectiveness of HR and IHL training in
To study the effects of effective training of HR and
IHL in SLN.
To understand the satisfaction level of naval personal
regarding HR and IHL training.
To offer suggestions based on findings of the
16. As per the Bienert( 2014) ,it is mentioned
that, establishing and protecting HR and IHL is utmost important and that
responsibility lies with the armed forces as well as the Ministry of defence in
any countries. In addition to that as
per the study of Bates (2015), it is emphasized that IHL training would be
effective to prevent the IHL violation for military personal. Also as per the
releifweb (2017) indicated that various HR and IHL allegations were raised from
several parties in the world, including the UNHRC and presently they are being
assessed the improvement of the implementing HR resolution 30/1 on promoting
reconciliation, accountability is still being observed by the UNHRC .Hence as
per the all above references indicated that HR and IHL training is great
important to the military personal to enhance their professionalism when they
it is important that to conduct HR and IHL training in effective manner in SLN.
As per the Bates (2015), there are two minimum principle considerations on the
military training. First principle
is training should capable of encouraging proper conduct, and second principle
is military ethics training should train soldiers in independent reflection,
given the significance of group unity and the command chain. Both principals are
significance for the military training. In addition to that effective military
training should be provided that practical training other than the class room instructions.
Also it is mentioned that (Wortel and Bosch, 2011) study shows the significance
of a mentoring or “train the trainers” approach (at least in military ethics),
and could offer transferable insights for the design of IHL training. As per
the Karthik (2012) it is indicated that,
ultimately trainees should understand the objective of the training and objectives
are great important of the organizational requirements as trainer, trainee,
design and evaluator.
have indicated that (Punia et al., 2013) measuring effectiveness of training is
difficult task and there are recognized models for measuring the training
effectiveness. According to them Kirkpatrick (1976) being the pioneer of found
method to evaluate the effectiveness of training. Others have shown (Saad et
al., 2013) that Kirkpatrick model is the most accepted model for the measuring
training effectiveness. It is consisted with four steps to evaluate the
effectiveness such as Reaction, Learning, Beahaviour and Results. In these
Reaction criteria the cover evaluates trainees’ affective and attitudinal reactions
to a training programme as same as per the Karthik (2012). A Kirkpatrick second
criterion as Learning, which assesses the level of trainee’s, has absorbed knowledge
from the training programme and it also similar with the criteria with the Karthik
as per the report, (USA. Department Health and Human Services, 1999) it is
emphasized that effective training can be measure by the Learner variables
(age, sex, socioeconomic status, etc.), trainer variables (experience, teaching
style, etc.), and context variables (class size, classroom instruction versus
apprenticeship training, etc.) also most similar with the Kirkpatrick model.
it is difficult to find out literature regarding the study on effective
training on HR and IHL training, but it is rarely found one study Bates (2015)
on effective training on IHL. There are many studies easily found to measure
the effectiveness of training in different subjects in different organizations
and those studies can be used to develop/modified the conceptual frame to meassure
the effectiveness of training in military personal. Also there are many ICRC
documents used to emphasized the significance of the HR and IHL training for
the military personal and it is effected to the enhance the professionalism of
the naval personal.