In this essay I will discuss the term occupation and
occupational performance and how various occupations can contribute to human
health and well-being.
Occupational therapy is the use of an activity to
resolve any physical injury, or illness, psychosocial dysfunction, developmental
or learning disabilities. An ‘occupation’ is any activity performed by an
individual, Wilcock and Hocking (2015). Occupational
Therapists agree that there is a strong relationship between taking part in an
occupation, health and well-being.
Occupations are activities that are engaged in
everyday, what people spend time and energy completing, Wilcock and Hocking,
(2015). Occupation can be an
intervention to improve health, and any occupation chosen will be that of
client preference and which have therapeutic value, J. Taylor (2005).
Reed & Sanderson (1999)pg3 describe occupation as, the word ‘occupy’ is
to employ the mind and engage in something, and therapy will treat disease, concluding
occupational therapy practise is to treat disease by engaging a persons mind in
occupation. Occupation is to be
‘occupied’ and to be in charge of time and space and to engage in familiar
things that people do everyday, American OT Association.
Occupation’s is to actively look after ourselves and
others and be socially and economically available. Occupations are considered necessary for
health and well-being, Kielhofner (2009). Occupation or a goal set activity is
a procedure to improve human performance in various roles i.e. self-care, work,
and play. These procedures begin in
theory and research which links the physical, phychological, cognitive, and
emotional capabilities of human performance to the person’s attitudes,
motivation, values, interests, habits living environments, and culture, Levine
& Brayley (1991).
came up with an amalgamation describing occupation as of ‘doing, being and
becoming’. Activities are the ‘doing’ process of occupation with a directed approach
towards achieving goals through occupation, (Creek 2010).
Well-being is a subjective experience, everyone has a
different outcome and experience, consisting of feelings of comfort, pleasure,
and health, Schmidt, (2005). People
experience well-being by adopting an occupation that meets their values and
preferences, this supports their plans, goals, occupational identities and
their ability to carry out their valued roles competently,
Since the early 20th century the occupation
therapy profession has been involved with looking at occupation and its links
to health and-well-being, Molineux, (2004). In the first Occupational Therapy
paradigm it was established that occupation was a basic human need,
Townsend&Polatajko, (2007). During
Occupation-based intervention, occupational therapists prescribe relevant
occupations as their means to achieve goals related to performance.
Occupational performance concentrates on the
ability to perceive, want, recall, plan and contribute to roles, routines,
tasks and sub-tasks for the purpose of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure
and rest in accordance and response to demands of the internal and/or external
environment, Reed, K. (1984). Occupational Performance is looking at the activity
within the occupation, and how the person can carry out the activity required
for daily living.
of occupational therapy.