Electromagnetics is a branch of
physics that deals with the study of electric and magnetic phenomena. It
tackles the interactions between moving electric charges and those at rest. The
study of electromagnetics involves the fusion, examination, physical
interpretation, and application of both electric and magnetic fields
(Sadiku, 2005). Electric charge is a fundamental
property to make electromagnetic interactions possible. Objects that are
electrically charged are accelerated by electric forces. Furthermore, electric
charge are observed to be quantized and obeys the law of conservation (Young
and Freedman, 2008).
Electricity and magnetism are two
instruments of electromagnetism. Until 19th century, they were long thought to
be unrelated with each other. Electric charges at rest or in motion yield
electric forces while magnetic forces are product solely of moving charges. The
two forces can be discern in areas called electric and magnetic fields,
respectively. These fields can be present in regions far from the sources that
produced them (McGrayne, Robinson, and Kashy, 2016). A changing electric field can give rise to a magnetic
field and vice versa. It was discovered by Michael Faraday. While a changing
magnetic field produces electric field is exposed by James Clerk Maxwell. These
exchanges generate to electromagnetic waves. Unlike other waves such as sound,
EM waves do not require a medium in order to propagate (Mirza, 2011).
Summarization of the phenomena for
electromagnetics is can be observed in the four formulas in Maxwell’s equation.
This discovery of Maxwell with the help of prior contributions from other great
scientists and physicists led to the understanding of the EM phenomena in which
further broadened by the famous Albert Einstein in his special relativity
Robinson, and Kashy, 2016).
The interaction between electricity
and magnetism has paved the way to the massive advancements in the field of
science and technology. The principles behind eletromagnetics
has been applied in various aspects of our daily lives. It can be seen at the
kitchen area of most household which holds simple equipments like microwaves,
electric cooker, ricecooker and etc. (Sadiku, 2005).
EM principle paves the way for the improvement of telecommunications,
technologies, and computers which are integral parts of the present generation.
It finds application in designing and operating of every possible electronic
equipments like antennas, satellite communications, bar-code reader, radio/TV,
telephone, cellphone, display screen and laser (Ulaby, Michielssen, and
Furthermore, the EM principle entails the development in
physical medicine such as the EM power which is used to alleviate particular
pathological conditions. The device operates either in short or micro waves
form in heating deep tissues and stirring certain bodily responses of patients
All applications stated above are made possible through
deep understanding of the laws and principles of EM in order to design devices
that will be used to perform specific tasks.