Bronfenbrenner I do not like Kahrmanmara? and in the

Bronfenbrenner elaborated that
environment of individuals have big influences on their own development. I want
to explain briefly what is environment of individuals which are affecting their
development; microsystem which is our closest environment that we are
directly interacting with. Such as family, friends, school or work place.  When I start know my mom’s friends it will be
mesosystem
which is interaction with microsystem. Exosystem gets in, when a person
affected indirectly. For example when I was small my mom was always working. I
used see her hardly, that was affecting me negatively. Macrosystem occurs when
we interact with cultural values, political systems and economical systems.
Again when I was small my mom changed her work place. For 2 years when I was at
the age of 5 we moved to Antalya and when I was at the age of 9  we moved back to ?anl?urfa. We stayed there
for 2 years and moved back to Kahramanmara?. So I saw 3 different cultures. Chronosystem
relationship between time and individul’s development. For example my little
sister grew up with the technology which is she was taking courses online, she
was playing games on the computer and  this influenced her negatively because she was
not playing with her friends outside. She was not interacting with other
children.

I
am living in Kahramanmara?. It is beautiful city life is easy and we can find
anything we want there. But it’s sad to say that I do not like Kahrmanmara? and
in the future I do not want to live there. Because majority of people
close-minded, religious, women and men are mean to each other. People are all
talking about religion but they are doing bad things behind their back. My
opinion all religions have good intentions to make you good person. But in
Kahramanmara? they are hiding themselves behind religion and doing everything which
is harming another people. People think men should be above of women. They are
educating their children this way. Even there are schools girls and boys get
their educations separately.  Bronfenbrenner & Morris concentrates
in proposition 1 while individuals developing themselves it gets more complex;
interaction with people,  interaction
with objects and interaction with symbols which are our direct and immediate
environments. For effective development the interaction should continue
regularly and big period of the time. Proximal process occur when there is
interaction (regularly and continuously) 
between environment and person (1998).  According to the proposition 1 in
Kahramanmara? while children developing themselves they learn and see from
their immediate environment (family and school) ”men above women” with
separating their school and not letting them to interact with opposite  gender they are learning spending time or
having friends from other sex is bad. Even while they are playing outside boys
say that ” you are girl you cannot do this”, when a boy cries other boy says
”why are you crying like girl?” My opinion this is the result of family
education, school education and culture which has gender roles in it. Problem
will be solved when children gets co-education, when they see from family and
culture women and man are equal they can both cry because human being is
emotional. Community should recognize that there should not be a specific
gender role. Common ideas for women in my community all the time women should clean
home , women should cook, women  should
sit at home and take care of children, women cannot go out, women cannot work as
an engineer, women cannot do ”men job” etc. If mother and father have these
ideas, child will learn from them and grow this way. Later when this child grew
up and when his wife works and not have time to cook he will bully his wife
because she does not cook. Because child saw from his parents ”women should
cook”. This will result with dysfunction. Proposition 2 elaborates proximal
process and the results of proximal process (content, form, direction and
power) is effective for development (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998). All individuals
different systems, they all give different responses while they are developing
themselves. The link with my community is there can be individuals that they
reject being close-minded or they can reject gender roles  they threat women  differently than majority. While individuals
develop they can criticize and change things. For example who have the same
idea with women and men does not have their own roles, individuals can come
together and fight against it. Proposition 3 states that individuals -child or
adult- should be active in complex interaction with people around them and with
environment so they can have strong relationships and become committed to each
other’s well being (Bronfenbrenner
& Morris, 1998). Later Bronfenbrenner critisized the proposition 3 as strong
attacghment can cause psychological dependency. In my community there are some families
they do not allow their daughter to go to school out of Kahramanmara? even for
university education. And they are developing at home with the family. When I
stayed alone in Cyprus I learnt and experienced many things. I became stronger
with staying far away from my family. But these people they do not see what is
going on with the world. They are not having experiences other than outside
of  home (city). They do not see other
cultures. They became dependent to family. When they go out of the city they
may not know what to do or when they lose their family they cannot deal with
this. Because throughout their life children were living with the family. Most
of the family think that outside is not safe. Because they see Kahramanmara? is
not safe. When children with the family he/she will be safe. As a school when
they make activities out of school like visiting other cities it will be
effective my personal view.

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2)
Firstly I would like to give
information of Dolores O’Riordan’s life. She  was
born
at 1971, 6th of September. She was an Irish musician. She was writing songs
since she was 12.  She was the member of The Cranberries which is rock band and
famous around the world. At 1990 she was chosen as soloist for The Cranberries
group. On 1993 their first album published. Their last album was on 2012. Her
solo album was on 2007 and second solo album published on 2009. Group came back
together and they made tours. They came to Turkey (Istanbul and Izmir) as well.

          Her family was  religious and conservative. She used to go to
the church when she was little. When she grew up she was respecting to Catholic
Church but she choose not to go. She was the youngest children of family.
According to her speech when she told her mom before she goes to the band ”
Mom I am going to join a band” her mom answered ” I am going to band your
arse, get into your room and study”. 
She understood that she was not allowed to go to band. She said that she
was always believing herself. Her dream was being a rockstar. In interview she
added that ”it was not that much fun after 6 years living in hotels”

          While she was at the age of 8, someone that
close to her, abused (sexually) her for 4 years. After this event she had
eating disorders. She also attempted to suicide at 2013. She explained this on 2013.
She used to hate herself. She also said that she have psychological issues
(depression and bipolar disorder) which is doctors diagnosed. She used to take
alchohol. According to the sources  while
she was pregnant she saw her husband with a woman at the bar. Later she wrote a
song for this event. She divorced with her husband at 2014. She lost her father
on 2011 because of cancer and she was very sad. On 2015

          She got married at the age of 23 on
1994. After three years which is 1997 she gave born to her first child Taylor.
After Taylor, Molly was born on 2001 and at 2005 her third children came to the
world. Between 1994 – 2009 she lived in Canada with her family. (Her husband
had a child from his ex-relationship). On 2013 they all with 4 children moved
back to Ireland.

       According to the her speech she was happy with
her children. Her children were made her strong and they changed her life. She
moved on from problems with her children. She lost her father on 2011 she was
very sad.

        She explained that in her interview
”life is not about money, life is all about the love”. In another interview
she said that ” depression is an hard process but I had happy times also,
especially with my children, there are ups and downs in life, life is nothing
if there is no ups and downs”

       She died in England at the age of 46,
for an unknown reason date of 15 January 2018.

(Resources
from YouTube, NTV, BBC, Wikipedia)

        According to Bengtson and Allen, Life Course Theory  how; family life, environment of individuals,
early life times or events, connection with time and socioeconomic time which
they are in affects their future life (1993). Principle 1 states that
throughout lifetime development continues. It goes until death. O’Riordan had problematic life process. There were ups
and downs. In every processes she was changing. She was
learning or developing herself. These processes affecting each other and all
related to each other. Outcomes were sometimes negative. She was in bad
situation psychologically. But with time she felt better. Over time she changed
physically also, she did not stay with the same health conditions. When a person
abused her after a while  she was
anorectic. Fullerton and colloquies found that sexual abuse was related with
(scored higly) eating disorders (1995). Emotionally she was not feeling well
for long time of period because of what she lived. Her success made her strong
she felt again better. Her children made her strong. Her emotions changed. Cognitively
she changed. Before her father’s death she was thinking and dreaming of the
person who abused her. Principle 2 examines that individuals create their life with
their choices. Opportunities and constraints given to them have influences
while they shape their life. These constrains can be also social or historical.
O’Riordan’s mom was not supporting her. Her
family was not giving her chance to exhibit her abilities. But she made her
dreams come true she believed herself. She was very successful. When the person
abused her perhaps she could not tell anyone. If she could tell even her
family, maybe she would get psychological support earlier and it was not affect
her for all her life.  Principle 3 emphasize
that timing is an important item in individuals life. she got married at the
age of 23 she was not that small. When she got in group she was 18. She did not
study she could go to university. She was dreaming of being Rockstar after 6
years she was not that happy. Principle of  linked lives which is shared relationships  examines that lives are connected with each
other(reciprocally) (Elder, 1998). Experiences are linked with the family. O’Riordan lost her father she felt so
bad, she divorced she was having bad times but according to her interview she
was happy again with her children. Last principle emphasized that individuals
shapes their environment in which historical time they are in it and  at which place they are. She was musician and
technology is important for making song. From 1971 technology just started to
develop well. She was using this and making music with materials. She lived in Ireland,
England and Canada which means she would get opportunities easily.  

4)  Give an example of proximal process from your
own experience

My
mom and my dad were always working. That’s why I was living with my grandmother
most of the time. My mom was always busy and when she came home she was
stressful or tired. When I tried to joke around her or tried to talk to her she
was giving me reactions that ”I am tired. Be silent, do not make anywhere
dirty  etc.” and she was always getting
angry to everything. When I go to the garden and my peers with their mom
playing or talking I was getting jealous. From inside I knew that she loves me
but she was just so much tired and stressful. Her job was accountant. She gave
these reactions for long time such as until I became 14 years old. In this
period I got close to my grandmother. Because while my mother works my
grandmother used to take care of me. after a while I was silent all the time. My
adolescence years I was always in my room when I come to home and still  my mom was always tired. Sometimes when I tried
to talk to her I was stopping myself because I knew that she will ignore me
again. I guess all my critical periods passed without her. When I was small,
when I was teenager I was not having conversations with her like my friends do.
I never talked to her about my friends I never told her when I have boyfriend. I
am 25 years old but still I cannot tell that I have boyfriend. Sometimes I remember
when I tried to talk to her she was judging me. For her I did not have good
friends either. After I came to Cyprus and we stayed away from each other she
realised the distance between us I guess. Because when I go back for holiday
she always nice to me and she comes my room and tries to talk. She retired  when I was 18 years old. After 18 years of
being home I came to Cyprus. Interacting with my mom affected my friendships
and relationship with others. I was closing myself to others because I was
scared when I say something they would react me negatively. I am still surprising
how people can talk everything with their mom- I guess when I say that I have boyfriend
she will still not accept it and when she accept she will control me from far
away- with closing myself to everyone I had low self-esteem. I did not trust
myself in any fields. When I started to psychology l was realising things
clearly like how important mother-child interaction. How our first interacting
with family experiences affecting us in our later life. Not like before but sometimes
still I am having problems with people around me because I am closing myself to
them. Maybe this would be a stereotype but one day when I have a child I will
be open with him/her. I will always give chance to talk to me as a mother when
something happen.

 

3)
Main aim of the article explaining how developmental contextualism ensure
conceptual frame work for psychological counsellor of school. American Psychological
Association elaborates that contribution of psychology is important for
education (1997).

DEVELOPMENTAL-CONTEXTUALISM:
A NEW DEVELOPMENTAL FRAMEWORK

 Other theories and developmental contextualism
focuses on how individual’s environment affects them (Rutter, 1996). But contextualism
goes beyond the other theories and examines how people differ. Shortly people
can affect from their contexts but contexts also can affect individual’s
development.  Here both context and
individuals active. These context are community, culture, family, neighbours,
work, school etc. this variability of context gives flexibility to the person
for applying new directions and developing of individuals. With the variety of
plasticity or flexibility rates of showing negative outcomes decreases. Most of
the theorists took into consideration until the age of 18 but developmental
contextualism took into consideration also consideration broadly. To show
better profit of developmental-contextualism for counselling psychologists who is
working with schools, they have determined four major principles. First one is
context affects individual’s development. This principle suggests that school counselling
psychologist can mix school and community together, cooperate in school setting
which includes intervention programmes. Second principle suggests that which is
 Bio-Psycho-Social Development; if a
child having problems (mentally, psychologically, emotionally or physically)
he/she cannot be successful. Dryfoos suggested  that being together with  professional service delivery and follow-up
and  checking up on children if there is
a problem in this way they can specify the problem (1995). Third principle
which is Development Across the Life Span focuses on parents. children’s
parents are important for the development of their own child. That’s why school
and parents should be in contact for the children’s development. Such as child
rearing classes. Moreover this principle includes education of parent which is
very important. Last principle suggests that counseling psychologist can use their
knowledge with more multicultural domains about risk and resilience.  These 4 principles can guide for interventions
and psychologists who works in schools. In this way they can mix both community
and school together. They applied their aim with the new perspective which is
developmental contextualism.