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A fundamental transformation of lifestyles and economic patterns is needed to achieve sustainable development. Education has been called upon to support this transformation and therefore, many promoters of ESD tend to rely in their education practices to the teary of transformative learning: “Our main message is that ESD must build on transformative learning, and that greater attention to transformative learning requires taking into account, and critiquing, the social and normative context in which teaching takes place” (ESD Working Group of SAGUF). 
Transformative learning is defined as a process by which previously uncritically assimilated assumptions, beliefs, values and perspectives are questioned and thereby become more open, permeable, and better justified. Transformative learning emerged in the 1970s and is best known through the work of Jack Mezirow. Over the years several approaches to transformative learning appeared:

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psychoanalytic approach of transformative learning is seen as a process of individuation, a lifelong journey of coming to understand oneself through reflecting on the psychic structures that make up an individual’s identity;
psychodevelopmental approach of transformative learning emphasizes epistemological change over behavior change or quantity of knowledge;
social-emancipatory approach purports to consider the role of context and social change in transformative experience;
neurobiological approach is seen as volitional, curiosity-based, discovery-driven, and mentor-assisted and most effective at higher cognitive levels;
cultural-spiritual view of transformative learning is concerned with how learners construct knowledge as part of the transformative learning experience.